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最新常用经济术语

【编辑日期: 2008-06-16

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国民经济、对外经济贸易   NATIONAL ECONOMY, FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS AND TRADE

经济指标                economic indicators

社会总产值             total product of society

国民生产总值         GNP (Gross Domestic Product)

国内生产总值         GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

人均国内生产总值 GDP per capita

工农业总产值         gross output value of industry and agriculture

国民收入                national income

购买力平价法         purchasing power parity

财政收入                state revenue

社会商品零售总额 total volume of retail sales

社会零售物价总指数     general retail price index

百分点                    percentage points

"八五"划划            the 8th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development

计划经济                planned economy

统购统销                state monopoly over purchase and marketing

市场经济                market economy

指令性计划             mandatory plan

指导性计划             guidance plan

市场调节                market regulation

建立市场经济、法制、民主监督和廉政"三个机制"      establish operational mechanisms of market economy, rule by law, democratic supervision and incorruptible government

抓好农业、交通能源、教育科技"三个基础" stress priorities over agriculture, transportation and energy supply, education and science and technology

实现产业结构、生态环境和人口素质"三个优化"    optimize industrial structure, ecological environment and the quality of population

第一、二、三产业 primary, secondary and tertiary industries

外向型经济             export-oriented economy

创汇型企业             foreign exchange-earning enterprise

劳动密集型             labor intensive

技术、智力、资本密集型   technology, knowledge or capital intensive

高附加值的深加工 down-stream processing with high added-value

优化资源配置         optimize allocation of resources

生产力                    productive forces

生产资料                capital goods

科研成果产业化     industrialization of research findings

火炬计划                Torch Plan

技术入股                technology appraised as capital stock

风险投资                venture investment/capital

固定资产投资         investment in fixed assets

折旧费                    depreciation cost

关系民生的产品     products vital to the people's livelihood

供大于求                oversupply

供不应求                short supply

经济过热                overheated economy

抑制炒房地产热     stem frenzied and speculative trading in the property market

宏观调控                macro-economic control

经济杠杆                economic levers

产业政策                industrial policy

财政, 税收, 信贷,利率, 汇率 public financing, taxation, credit, interest rate, exchange rate

提高经济效益         enhance economic performance/returns

社会效益                social effect/returns

实现持续、稳定、协调的发展 bring about sustained, stable and coordinated development

财政赤字(盈余 )   budget deficit(surplus)

外贸出口总额         gross foreign export value

外商直接投资协议金额 contracted foreign direct investment

实际利用外资         foreign investment in actual use

三资企业(中外合资合作、外商独资经营)    three kinds of enterprises with foreign investment: sino-foreign joint venture, contractual joint venture

允许外商独资经营 allow full foreign equity operation

优惠条件                confessional terms; favorable terms

减免税收                tax reduction and exemption

合作方式                approaches to cooperation

出资方式                means of contributing investment

合营期限                contract term of a joint venture

三来一补 (来料加工,来件装配,来样加工)  processing and compensation trades(processing with materials or given samples, assembling supplied components)

贸易伙伴                trade partner

转口贸易                transit trade

外贸顺差                foreign trade surplus

积极引进外来资金、技术、人才和管理经验 actively introduce capital, technology, competent professionals and managerial expertise form outside

交钥匙工程             turn-key project

招标承包制             bidding invitation contract system

招标出售技术         bids for technology

公开招标                call for bid; tenders

招标单                    invitation for bid (IFB)

标书                        bidding document

竟标                        competitive bidding

投标                        bid for a project

投标报价书             bid proposals

评标                        bid proposal evaluation

开标                        bid opening

中标                        win a bid; be awarded a tender

拍卖                        auction

租赁                        leasing

保税区                    bonded area; free trade area

实行全方位开放     practice multi-directional opening

统一政策、放开经营、平等竞争、     unified policy, liberalized operation, and equal competition

自负盈亏、工贸结合、推行代理制   responsibility for one's own profits and losses, the integration of industry and foreign trade, and the promotion of agent system

知识产权                intellectual property rights

技术转让                technology transfer

可行性研究             feasibility study

意向书                    letter of intent

投资环境                investment environment

跨国公司                transnational coorporation

基础设施                infrastructure

20年基本实现现代化    basically achieve modernization in 20 years

发挥技术窗口管理窗口和人才窗口的作用    serve as a medium for introducing advanced technologies, managerial expertise and qualified professionals from outside.

招商                        attract investment

招商项目                project proposals for investment

同国际惯例接轨    follow the international codes of practice; bring … in line with the international usage

加大改革力度         intensify reforms

一条龙服务             one package service

一支笔审批             one-chop approval

我们两市的经济互补性很强。 To a great extent, the economies between out two cities are complementary to each other.

平等互利,互通有无     equality and mutual benefit, and trading of needed goods

外引内联                act as an intermediary for introducing foreign capital and establishing domestic connections

保持发展后劲         bring about a sustainable development; sustain momentum of development

经济实力                economic capabilities

龙头                        pacemaker; leading role

三通一平(水通、电通、路通、施工场地平)  "three connections and one leveling" assuring that a construction site is connected to water and electric power supplies and roads, and that the ground is leveled before a project is begun.

瓶颈                        bottleneck

以工养农                use industrial income to finance agriculture

以路养路                use tolls to repay investment in road projects

下放审批权             delegate the authority to examine and approve to lower levels

统而不死,活而不乱     ensure a flexible control

良性循环                positive cycle

国民经济的支柱     mainstay of the national economy

格局初步形成         Pattern has taken initial shape.

理顺企业的产权关系     rationalize the property rights relationships of enterprises

政策性亏损             policy-related loss

三角债                    chain debts

上不封顶,下不保底     set no ceiling limit and give no minimum guarantee

企业工效挂钩 link total payroll with the performance of an enterprise

生意兴隆/冷淡       Business is booming/sluggish

质量信得过单位     quality trustworthy organization

批量生产                mass production

以销定产                limit production to market ability

内联企业                inland associated enterprises

菜篮子工程             shipping basket project

国产化                    percentage of home-made parts

配套改革                coordinated reforms

配套措施                supporting measures

配套工程                auxiliary project

国内配套资金         domestic funds

向基础工业倾斜的政策 policy in favor of basic industry

升级换代                upgrading and updating

看好经济增长         think highly of economic growth

行情看好                Favorable price/market can be expected.

行情看涨/           anticipate lower market price/rising price

随行就市                fluctuate in line with market conditions

片面追求发展速度 seek an unduly high growth rate

在过渡时期             in a period of transition

粗放/集约经营       extensive/intensive operation

基础地位                leading position

门类齐全                covering extensive fields

存款/贷款余额       the balance of deposits/loans

外汇储备                foreign exchange reserves

贸易顺差                trade surplus

完善的市场和发达的金融体制 well-established market and sophisticated financial system

消灭失业                wipe out unemployment

降低过热的期货市场,恢复金融秩序 cool down the over-heated future market and restore financial order

紧缩银根                tighten the money supply

一位数水平             one digit level

保持双边贸易的平衡     balance the two-way trade

这次会议为两国进一步加强持续的经济联系奠定了坚实的基础。      This meeting laid a sound foundation for the two countries to forge enduring/lasting and constant/continuous economic ties.

市场疲软                a market slump

库存积压                overstocked products

国家指令性计划     state mandatory planning

统一定价                unified price setting

国家统配物资         materials allocated by state

货币发放                the issue of currency

规范价格秩序        standardize the price order

简化流通环节,增加随机检查 simplify circulation and add more random checks

市场机制开始发挥调节作用。 The market mechanisms are beginning to play their regulatory role.

由于该暗补为明补,粮食购销同价。 Grains are purchased and sold by the same price because covered allowances are turned into open allowance.

导致价格持续增长的一个重要因素在于物价的逐步放开及价格结构调整。  An important factor (contributing to/resulting in) substantial price hikes lies in the gradual lifting of prices control and the structural adjustment of prices.

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